Mulberry Tree (Morus): A Small Guide for Garden Enthusiasts


Mulberry trees is one of the most popular deciduous trees in the Greek landscape, due to the wonderful shade offered by its foliage. It belongs to the family Moracae and the genus Morus (of the Moreae).  Since its introduction to Greece in ancient times, it has been known by the names Sycaminia, Xinomouria and Mournia. It is a fast-growing tree, found in streets, yards, parks, in the city and of course in villages. In addition to being ornamental, mulberry trees bear delicious and healthy fruits (considered superfood), excellent wood for furniture making, and leaves that are ideal food for silkworms. The ornamental tree is one of the leading shade trees in landscape architecture, since its branches can be shaped to create a natural trellis.


It is found in varieties that bear fruit and others that do not, such as the ornamental mulberry. This species does not bear fruit, while its leaves are similar in shape to those of the plane tree, hence its name. It is less expansive than the fruit trees and is often shorter in height (up to 18 meters). In other words, it is the ‘tidiest’ species and suitable for places where cleanliness is of great importance, such as hotels, garages and pavements.

The most widespread fruiting mulberries in the Mediterranean are the black or common mulberry (Morus nigra) and the white mulberry (Morus alba). The former originates from the Caspian Sea regions and grows up to 8 m high (the shortest). It has dark green leaves, with a large width and fuzz on the underside. The berries it produces are naturally dark in color and are the most delicious, being sweet. Their ripening period is July-August, when they have acquired a very dark red color.

On the other hand, the white mulberry tree originates from China and reaches up to 24 meters. Its foliage is more elongated and glossier, with a light green color. The fruits have a striking white color, which can sometimes turn slightly red. The fruits of the white mulberry are sourer and therefore not so much used for eating, but they are excellent food for silkworms, as the leaves of the black mulberry made the silk coarser.

Other popular varieties are the red mulberry (Morus rubra), particularly widespread in northeastern Europe, and the low, ornamental, low-growing creeping mulberry (Morus pendula), where the leaves point towards the ground.

Morus nigra

Soil and climatological conditions

The mulberry tree is such a beloved tree, not only for its beauty and the memories it evokes, as it reminds many of us of our village or holidays in the countryside, but also for its excellent resistance to particularly harsh conditions, where other trees do not manage so successfully. As far as the soil is concerned, mulberry trees have no particular preferences and grow successfully in dry soils with high levels of salinity. If, of course, it is found in fertile soil, with high organic matter and good drainage, the results are impressive. Although mulberry loves the sun, it can withstand both cold and snow. Finally, it is no coincidence that it is widely used in urban landscapes as it is one of the trees with the highest resistance to atmospheric pollution.


Mulberry has a good resistance to drought. Of course, watering in the summer months should not be omitted, so that the foliage is lush and the fruit is plentiful and juicy.


Important cultivation care is the pruning of mulberry trees. As a deciduous tree, sycamore is pruned in mid-winter (January-February), when the tree is dormant and its sap is not circulating. Remember, however, that depending on the usefulness we want the tree to have, the more severe or light the pruning will be. If we are interested in the foliage, for example, the pruning should be severe and, as a consequence, the production of berries will be less. On the other hand, if fruit production is the main objective, it is recommended that pruning should be limited. This is the reason why severe pruning is observed in the sidewalk tree rows, as the tree’s interest is focused on shade. Still, severe pruning is also done in the white mulberry tree, where we want high leaf production for silkworms. As far as age is concerned, a small mulberry tree is pruned in the first three years in such a way that it takes the desired shape. In this case, we make sure that the stems start from a height of about 1.5 meters, while the number of branches should not exceed 5, in order to form a round or spreading shape. Finally, an admonition for the lazier tree lovers is not to leave the mulberry tree untended for very long periods, as this will result in a large height, with dense but very weakened shoots, which is not what we want. Besides, pruning increases our physical condition! Of course, as we’ve learned in the article about fig trees, after pruning we smear with a special pruning paste to prevent fungi and bacteria from attacking our tree.


Finally, the fertilization factor is also dependent on the use of the tree. Fertilizers with a higher nitrogen content in late winter (when the very cold weather is over) lead to more vigorous foliage, while potassium fertilizers lead to more fruit bearing.


As far as diseases are concerned, mulberry trees are very resistant to fungi and insects. However, its biggest enemy is the aphids. In recent years, infestations of the wood-eating insect Xylotrechus chinensis have occurred. The larvae of this insect enter the trunk and open galleries, leading to problems in the transport of water and nutrients.

Bonus Tip

And a bonus tip for the readers who made it this far, to say that if you eat berries you will be especially happy with the following, as berries have vitamin C, K, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and iron. They are highly anti-cancer and fight body tumors according to research. They increase good cholesterol (HDL) and help reduce weight (73% increase in lipolysis capacity), control diabetes, and help prevent Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. So eat berries!

The berries you should eat!
For more information about our mulberry trees click here 
ficus carica-fig tree

Uncovering 10+1 Secrets of the Fig Tree: A Garden Treasure

  Most of us in Greece remember that there was always at least one fig tree in the neighbourhood where we played as children. So, agriculturists and non-agriculturists alike, we know how to identify this tree, even in winter when its leaves have fallen. For others, summer is synonymous with company, the sea, a cool glass of water and a plate of figs.

  1. Historical facts

   The fig tree has existed in Europe since prehistoric times, symbolising fertility. From ancient times, the fig tree was worshipped as the tree of Dionysus, while the ‘Vasilika’ variety was cultivated in Attica. Later, it was the first tree mentioned in the Bible (7,000 BC in Jericho). The oldest fig tree on the planet is found in Sri Lanka and is estimated to be about 2 300 years old. Its name is ‘Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi’ and it belongs to the variety Ficus religiosa. Legend has it that under this tree the Buddha found enlightenment.

     Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi, ficus religiosa   Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi, Sri Lanka

    2. Features

   The fig tree, or Ficus carica, belongs to the family Moraceae and is one of the most popular deciduous trees. It can live successfully for many decades. It reaches a height of 7 metres, with its crown creating a rounded shape. Its trunk has a characteristic smooth textured grey colour. The leaves are large, heart-shaped, with 3 to 5 lobes, dark green in colour. The upper part of the foliage has a smooth texture, while the lower part is covered with small fuzz. The fig makes its first appearances in April, being initially very small, sometimes green and sometimes purple. It then grows and acquires that sweet and juicy taste. The harvest period is June, with the so-called ‘fracasanes’, and August-September, when the real, edible figs are produced. In all seasons the figs can be eaten dried, while in the summer months they can also be eaten fresh. Dried figs are 3 times more nutritious than fresh figs.

    3. Varieties

   Figs, as many people believe, are not fruits, but inflorescences, inside of which are small flowers, which then turn into tiny hard fruits (inflorescences). In nature there are wild figs (male figs) whose figs are not edible and tame figs (female figs) whose figs are edible. But let’s take a look at the most well-known varieties that are edible:

  • Vasilika (black and white)
  • Markopoulou (black)
  • Kalamon (white)
  • Kymis (white)
  • Argalasti (white)
  • Politiko (white)
  • Fracasanes (white)
  • while the foreign ones are Alfiore, Brazilliana, Dauphine, Dottato, Mission and San piero.
     infructescence of fig tree
  1. The conditions in which it thrives

   The fig tree thrives very easily in the Greek garden. It prefers warm climates, but it can also thrive without much care in mountainous areas if the right variety is chosen. It has no problem with any type of soil, even calcareous soils, except for very clayey soils, which retain very large amounts of water. On the contrary, the soils that prefers are rich, light soils with good drainage. It is particularly resistant to drought and salinity.

  1. Irrigation

   The fig tree carries a high resistance to water shortage. Mature fig trees, when available, should be watered every 15 days, and once a week in the summer, in order to ensure satisfactory fruiting. Often, lack of water can lead to hollow fruit, while excessive moisture can lead to splitting of figs (cracking).

  1. Fertilization

   If we want rich fruiting for our fig tree, all we have to do is fertilize it with well-digested manure, which we will incorporate into the soil in winter. In this way, our tree will get all the organic matter and nitrogen it needs.

  1. Pruning

   The fig tree generally does not tolerate severe pruning , which is why it is often left in its natural shape. However, if pruning is desirable, it is advisable with the first pruning from planting to give it an open cup shape, with the branching of the arms starting low. In this way, it will be easy to harvest. The work of pruning shaping in the fig tree is done for warm regions in January-February, and for cold regions in March. Fruit pruning is also done at the same time, and is very light, as the fig tree does not require much intervention. The tops of the branches should not be cut off, as that is where new fruit will form. Finally, do not forget to apply a special paste to the large pruning cuts.

  1. Diseases

   One of the pests of the fig tree can be the so-called fig scab or wax moth, the flea, the black fig flies and the Mediterranean fly. Root knot nematodes may also cause problems, while fungi of the genera Phytophthora, Penicillium, Botrytis and Fusarium are common causes of fig tree deterioration.

    9. Health benefits

   Figs are rightly considered a superfood and are ideal for children and sickly bodies. They contain numerous nutrients such as vitamins B1, B2, A, E, K, minerals and the most fibre of any fruit. Thus, they prevent heart disease (drop in triglycerides in the blood), help build bone density, preventing osteoporosis, due to the increased calcium and potassium they contain, and also help in cases of constipation. Dried figs in particular have more than three times the nutritional value of fresh figs and are considered to be comparable to raisins and other high-calorie products. Furthermore, a property of figs that is not known to the general public is that they increase the sense of pleasure (increase dopamine in the brain).

  1. Use in architecture

   The fig tree is one of the best choices for a garden, even a luxurious one. Aesthetically it gives a rustic and country look, as well as being a focal point because of the shade it provides for the summer months. As mentioned above, it is a tree with a strong resistance to salinity, which makes it a favorite among landscape architects and agronomists who undertake projects on islands and dryland gardens. As for where to plant it, it is best avoided too close to buildings and walkways, as it carries a strong surface root system. 

  1. Delta Tip

   We have all heard the word ”sycophant”, ”slander” etc., but what is not known is that this word comes from fig + seem, i.e., to reveal. So, in ancient Greece, because the fig tree was considered very valuable as a sweetener, along with honey, penalties were imposed on those caught stealing them. So, there were people who would expose them and they were called ‘fig-fans’. Of course, there was no shortage of ”sycophants” who, out of revenge, denounced people who had not done any kind of theft, and that is why the word has gone down in history as someone who unjustly and deliberately accuses someone.

   For more information about Mediterranean trees here

A beautiful garden is the key to happy customers

10 Reasons the Garden is the Key to Happy Customers

   Who wouldn’t want to know the key to happy customers? When it comes to running a successful business, like a hotel or a villa, creating a welcoming and inviting environment for your customers can be just as important as the products or services you offer.One way to create a positive and memorable experience for customers is by investing in a beautiful garden for your business. In this article, we’ll give you reasons why creating a beautiful garden will bring you more customers to your business.

 1. Appearance of your business: This can create a positive first impression for potential customers and make your business stand out from competitors. For more information you can find hotel and villa projects here.

 2. Atmosphere: A garden can provide a calming and inviting atmosphere for customers. It can also serve as a natural buffer from the noise and commotion of the surrounding area, creating a more peaceful environment for customers to enjoy.

 3. Marketing: A beautiful garden can be a unique selling point for your business, and can be incorporated into your marketing efforts. You can showcase the garden in your advertisements, on your website and social media platforms, and in any other promotional materials.

 4. Events: A garden can be an ideal location for hosting events, such as outdoor concerts, weddings, and parties. This can attract a wider range of customers to your business, and create positive associations with your brand.

 5. Outdoor Seating: If your business has an outdoor seating area, a garden can provide an appealing backdrop for customers to enjoy their meals or drinks. This can create a more pleasant dining experience, and make customers more likely to return.

Outdoor seating area in a hotel with palm trees 

 6. Employee Morale: A beautiful garden can also benefit your employees by providing a peaceful and enjoyable break area. This can improve their overall morale and productivity, and create a more positive work environment.

 7. Sustainability: A garden can also help your business to be more environmentally sustainable by reducing heat island effects, improving air quality, and reducing stormwater runoff. This can help to attract environmentally conscious customers and set your business apart as a leader in sustainability.

 8. Education: If your garden contains plants and flowers that are native to your region, it can be an educational resource for customers. You can use signage or guided tours to teach customers about the local flora and fauna, creating a unique learning experience.

 9. Community Outreach: A garden can also be a valuable resource for community outreach. You can use your garden to host gardening classes, volunteer opportunities, or other community events. This can create positive associations with your business, and make you a valued member of your community.

10. Health and Wellness: A garden can provide a relaxing and rejuvenating environment that promotes health and wellness. Customers may be drawn to your business if they know that they can take a break in a beautiful garden and enjoy the benefits of being surrounded by nature. This can be especially appealing to customers who are health-conscious or looking for a stress-free environment. In addition, if your garden includes edible plants, such as herbs or vegetables, you can promote healthy eating and sustainable living, which can attract a broader range of customers.

   In conclusion, a beautiful garden can bring many benefits to your business, including improved aesthetics, atmosphere, marketing, events, outdoor seating, employee morale, sustainability, education, community outreach, health and wellness. By investing in a beautiful garden, you can attract more customers, improve your brand reputation, and customer loyalty and create a more enjoyable and sustainable environment for everyone.